Homeworks

HOLIDAYS ASSIGNMENTS

Subject: BIOLOGY

CLASS: S2

1. Name two largest groups into which all animals are classified? What is the difference between these two groups?
2. Plants and animals are both living things. show how they differ in terms of: Growth; Movement and Nutrition
3. Name the carbohydrates that is:
     a) Found in abundance in mammalian blood?
     b) Stored in mammalian liver?
     c) Transported in plants?
     d) Stored in plant seeds?
     e) Found in plant cell wall?
4. Explain why:
   a) Red blood cells burst when placed in distilled water while plant cells remain intact?
   b) Fresh water protozoa like amoeba do not burst when placed in distilled water?
   c) Addition of large amounts of salt to soil in which plants are growing kill the plants?
5. Explain why plants respond to light?
6. Complete the table below to summarizes the characteristics of each class of arthropods
characteristics Insecta Arachnida crustacea diplopoda chilopoda
Number of body parts          
Number of limbs          
Gaseous exchange structure          
Number of antennae          
7. Which of the following has an active site:
  i) Product; substrate     iii)enzyme     iv)enzyme substrate complex

8. Select the correct statement from the following: i) The release of an ovum from ovary and the preparation of uterus to receive a fertilized egg to develop into a zygote is called fertilization ii) The process of passing out dead unfertilized ovum and uterine lining in women is called menstruation iii) The embryo receives blood from placenta. iv) After fertilization, the ovum dies and is released during fertilization

9. Give the products of digestion after the following food substance are broken down letely: i) carbohydrates  ii) proteins  iii) lipids

10. A substance X was heated with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) and cooled. The same amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added to neutralize the acid .the mixture was heated with benedict’s solution. An orange red brown color was formed.

  1. What is substance X? 
  2. Outline how colors changed from the original color to orange or red?
  3. Why was temperature kept at 370c?
  4. What is the role of HCl in this experiment?
  5. Why was neutralization necessary before the addition of benedict’s solution
  1. Name the physiological process by which each of the following occurs: /3marks
  2. Carbon oxide moves from the body cell to the blood capillaries
  3. Water is absorbed from the soil by root hairs
  4. Root hair cells in plant absorb mineral salts and ions from the soil
  5. An investigation was carried out into the effect of PH on the action of the enzyme amylase on starch. Eight test tubes were set up at different PHs and incubated in a water bath at 300C for one hour. The amount of reducing sugar (product) was then estimated. The result are shown in the table below:
PH

4.0

 5.0  6.0  6.5 7.0   8.0 9.0  10
Amount of reducing sugar product 1 12 26 32 33 27 13 5
  1. Plot the graph to show these results
  2. Explain the effect of PHfor enzyme amylase in this investigation
  3. What is the most suitable PHfor enzyme amylase in this investigation
  4. Suggest other factors( not in this investigation ) that affect the action of an enzyme such as amylase                                                   15.  Slices of  onion epidermis were placed in different concentration of sucrose solution. The percentage of plasmolysed cells was determined after thirty minutes and the result were as follows:
Concentration of sucrose solution 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75
% of plasmolysed cell 0 5 20 80 100
  1. What does the word plasmolysis mean? 
  2. What causes plasmolysis of cells? 
  3. Does plasmolysis occur to animal cell? Explain
  4. Explain the result of 0.55 molar sucrose solution
  5. What description or term would be used on a plant where 100% of its cell were plasmolysed?                                                                 16. which vitamin is deficient when a person has: i) Scurvy? ii) Rickets? 

b) Classify the following disease by placing them in the table below:

Cancer, Malaria, Diabetes, Typhoid, Ebola, Albinism, Tuberculosis and Marasmus

Communicable disease Non – communicable disease
   
   
   
   
   
  1. Study the equation given below

6CO2 +...……     C6H12O6 + …………..

  1. Complete the equation /2 marks
  2. What is the source of energy for this reaction? 1 Mark
  3. Name the pigment needed for this reaction to occur / 1 Mark
  4. What is the role of this pigment in photosynthesis?/ 1 Mark
  5. State the mineral ion required for the synthesis of this pigment 1Mark

18. Construct a dichotomous key that you can use to identify the following animals and place them into their taxonomic classes: Rabbit, Millipede, and Honey bee, Centipede, Tilapia Fish and Crocodile /10 Marks

Key:

       2) a) Animals body is covered with fur………………. Mammalia

             b) Animals body is covered with scales …………… go to 4

     3)   a) Animals body is divided into two parts ………….. go to 5

             b) Animals body is divided into three parts ……………insect

     4) a) Animals has fins ………………………….. ……….. pisces

           b) Animals has no fins …………………………………. reptilian

5) a) Animals body is elongated and cylindrical …………………. diplopoda

         b) Animal body is elongated and not cylindrical ………………….. Chilopoda

19) During an ecological tours ofLake MUHAZI a group of students from KIMANA Secondary school recorded the following observations.

              i)       Tilapia feed on mosquitoes larvae                                                                          

               ii)       Mosquito larval feed on planktonic algae

  1. Planktonic crustaceans feed on planktonic algae
  2. Hawks feed on tilapia, worms and planktonic crustaceans
  3. From this record of observations, construct a food web /3marks
  4. From the food web you have constructed in (a) above, isolate & write down a food chain that end with:
  5. Hawk as secondary consumer /2 Marks
  6. Hawk as a tertiary consumer /2marks
  7. Using the food web you constructed in (a),name:
  8. Two organisms that compete for food in the lake?/2marks
  9. The source of food the organisms in (d)(i) above compete for./1mark
  10. State way by which human beings may interfere with this lake in ecosystem./1mark

All the best!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

 

GAA   29 March 2016

HOLIDAYS ASSIGNMENTS

 Instructions:   

  • The  holidays package consist of two different subjects include Economics and Computer Science
  • The student has to choose the one that he/she is concerned with.
  • Submission date :  April 18th 2016
  • Attempt all questions
  • The student will not be allowed to enter in class without submitting the work
  • This work will be recorded as the first quiz in second term

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COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

S6 MCE & MPC

PRACTICAL EXERCISES

Instructions:

Try to do all questions and be sure you are able to explain how the program is going to be implemented.

The submission date is fixed on 18-04-2016  at 4:00 pm


C++ Programming Exercises

C++ exercises will help you test your knowledge and skill of programming in C++ and practice the C++ programming language concepts. You will start from basic C++ exercises to more complex exercises. You should try to solve each problem by yourself. If you have any questions regarding to each problem, you will report it so that we may discuss about it in class.

Exercise 1:

Write a C++ program to print the following lines:

You are 10 years old.
You are too young to play the game.

Exercise 2:

Write five C++ statements to print the asterisk pattern as shown below.

*****
*****
*****
*****
*****

Exercise 3:

Write a C++ program to declare two integer , one float variables and assign 10, 15, and 12.6 to them respectively. It then prints these values on the screen.

Exercise 4:

Write a C++ program to prompt the user to input her/his name and print this name on the screen, as shown below. The text from keyboard can be read by using cin>> and to display the text on the screen you can use cout<<.

“Hello Sok!”

Exercise 5:

Write a C++ program to prompt the user to input 3 integer values and print these values in forward and reversed order, as shown below.

Please enter your 3 numbers: 12 45 78
Your numbers forward:
12
45
78
  Your numbers reversed:
78
45
12

Use of
Object Oriented Programming

Exercises on Classes

Exercise 6

Write a class having two private variables and one member function which will return the area of the rectangle.

Exercise 7

Write a program and input two integers in main and pass them to default constructor of the class. Show the result of the additon of two numbers.

Exercise 8

Write a c++ class called 'student' with

Data members:

name(char type),

marks1, marks2 (integer type)

The program asks the user to enter name and marks. Then calc_media() calculates the media note and disp() display name and total media mark on screen in different lines.

Exercise 9

Perform addition operation on complex numbers using class and object. The program should ask for real and imaginary part of two complex numbers, and display the real and imaginary parts of their sum.

Exercise 10

Create a class Item that has I_no, I_name, I_cost as data member and void getitem(void) and void putitem(void) as member functions. Write appropriate main() function for it.

posted by Assiel TWAGIRIMANA

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GAA, March, 2015

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

S6 MCE& MPC

 

PRACTICAL EXERCISES

Instructions:

Choose any three questions that you are able to explain how the program is going to be implemented.

The submission date is fixed on 20-04-2015 at 4:00 pm

 

  1. Write a program in C++ using classes to calculate the area of a circle, a rectangle and a triangle on user’s choice.
  2. Write a program in C++ using classes to find out whether the entered number is automorphic or not.
  3. Assume that a bank maintains two kinds of accounts for its customers, one called as savings account and other as current account. The savings account provides compound interest and withdrawal facilities but no checkbook facility. The current account provides checkbook facility but no interest. Current account holders should maintain a minimum balance and if the balance falls below this level as service charge is imposed.Create a Class account that stress customer name, account number and type of account. From this derive Classes cur_account and sav_account to make them more specific to their requirements include necessary member functions in order to achieve the following tasks:

           1)    Accept deposits from a customer and update the balance.
           2)    Display the balance.
           3)    Compute and deposit the interest.
           4)    Permit withdrawal and update the balance.
           5)    Check for the minimum balance and impose penalty necessary and update the balance.

4. Write a program in C++ to create Class called complex and implement addition and subtraction of complex numbers by overloading the functions add and subtract which returns the complex number. Also overload the operator “<<” to display a complex number.

5. Write a program in C++ to create a Class Date and add and subtract two valid dates. Illustrate the use of copy constructor.

6. Write a program in C++ using classes to enter the data of an employee and display it

7. Write a program in C++ to cre ate a linked list  with insert_front and delete_front as member functions by creating to objects. Use constructor to initialize the objects.

8. Write a program in C++ to create a Class Octal to perform decimal to octal conversion and addition of an octal and an integer by overloading ‘+’ and ‘=’.

9. Create a Class time that has separate int member data for hours,minutes and seconds.One constructor should initialize this data to 0 and another should initialize it to fixed values. Another member function should display it in hh:mm:ss format. The final member function should add two time objects passed as arguments.

10. Write a program to creat a base Class shape. Use this Class to store two double type values that could be used to compute the area of figures. Derive two specific classes triangle and rectangle from the base class shape.Add to the base class a member function get_data() to initialize base class data members and another function display_area() to compute and display the area of figures. Make the display_area function a virtual function and redefine this function in the derived classes to suit their requirements.

Using these three classes design a program that will accept dimensions of a triangle or a rectangle interactively and display the area.

 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS

    Instructions:   

  • The  holidays package consist of four different subjects include Economics, Entrepreneurship, Geography and Computer Science, and General Paper(For this GP Deadline for submission of the groupwork is 31/8/2015 at 4.30pm).
  • The student has to choose the one that he/she is concerned with.
  • Submission date :  August 17th 2015
  • Attempt all questions
  • The student will not be allowed to enter in class without submitting the work
  • This work will be recorded as the first quiz in third term

COURSE: COMPUTER SCIENCE

Class: S6MCE & MPC

  PART I: Computer Maintenance

1. Laptop will not charge while the laptop is turned on but it will charge when the laptop is turned off it isn't the laptop charger I've replaced it /ionce this week anyone got an idea what this may be?

2. What happens if you turn off the computer by the plug?

3. Do UPS systems need to be charged? Explain why?

4. How the best way to determinate if a cable inside a computer is a data cable or a power cable?

5. Is there a simple way to import files and programs from an old computer to a new one?

6. Why do computers need to be cold?

7. How do you use an anti static mat?

8. What computer components should you not touch while wearing antistatic wrist strap?

9. How can you format a Computer to make it like it was when brand new?

10. If you attach a fan to the case of a computer does the room temperature truly cool the computer?

11. If your monitor colors are very dark and adjusting controls or changing monitors and video cards has not helped how do you adjust the colors?

12. Who is the father of modern computer?

13. What does this 0x00e5415b referenced memory 0x00000000 error mean?

14. What is the difference between southbridge and northbridge?

15. Why is it that when I go to start my computer the monitor stays blank and nothing happens but the button you push to start the computer lights up and cooling fan also runs?

16. How do you delete everything off your computer and make it like new?

17. How can you expand the physical memory RAM in the PC?

18. Is there any way to return a computer hard drive to like when you first bought it?

19. How do you create a workgroup through a switch that has several computers and a server on it?

20. What is a video card and what are the functions of a video card?

21. What main advanatge do computers provide?

22. What's wrong with the computer eMachines?

23. What are the disadvantages of a CPU?

24. How can I repair System Restore?

25. Why do you need to refresh computer?

26. How do you speed up your computer?

27. When I open my hard drive I get a message that drive is not accessiable the file or directory is corrupted and unreadable how can i fix this problem?

28. What are four primary functions of Hardware?

29. What will happen if you format your hard disk drive?

30. What is a logical partition?

31. Where can I find Hp laserjet 4100mfp software driver and utilities?

32. Can a computer start by itself?

33. What are the advantages of using directories in files?

34. How do you remove exception processing message c00000a3 parameters 75b6bf7c 4 75b6bf7c 75b6bf7c on free?

35. Can you replace Pentium 4 1.9GHz with Pentium 4 3.5GHz?

36. what and how to proceed Hp backup and recovery manager file location?

37. What happens when you format a Hard Drive?

38. How do you restart your PC in safe mode?

39. What does defragmentation mean?  What does the Disk Defragmenter tool do?  When do you run disk defragmenter?

40. What is free space fragmentation?

41. Why doesn't my sound card work?

42. Is the BIOS Wizard and the Setup Wizard the same?

43. What Is CCleaner application?

44. Is the hard drive sensitive to physical damage?

45. What RAM module has 168pins on the edge connector?

46. What will happen if my computer power supply's fan stop working?

47. What is the signs that a printer fuser is going bad?

48.  What does redundant mean in Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks?

49. The computer is beeping constantly after you have booted it what is a likely problem?

50. Can you refill hp desk-jet 4500 ink cartridge?

51. What are the difference between local loop back testing and remote loop back testing?

52. What is meant by desktop support?

53. What makes your computer to run very slow?

54. How do you take good care of your computer?

55. How do you get the status bar back at the bottom of the screen?

56. What challenges might you face upgrading a smaller computer?

57. Describe the effects of Electrostatic discharge (ESD)

58. What is multi-boot? How do you create multi-boot?

 59. How do viruses get transmitted in a computer? How do you rid viruses from your computer ?

60. They say that prevention is better than cure. How would you ensure that your computer is properly maintained?

 PART II: PROGRAMMING

 

1.  Given the following sequence of characters, decide which of them are valid variable names.

 

 

 

tortellini

$tortellini

tortellini_in_brodo

 123tortellini

t123ortellini

2. Draw state diagrams along the execution of the following program:

a=34

b="Tortellini"

print b

a=14   

print a c=7.5

How is the state diagram after the execution of the following program:

 a=34+1

b="Tortellini"

print b+" in brodo"

a=a-16

print a

What is the output

3. What is the output of the following program? Use state diagrams if useful.

a=3

b=a+a**2-1

 c=b/5

a=c*3-1

print a

print b

print c

 4. What is the output of the following program?

        a=3

         a=a*a-3*(a+(a-2)*2)

          print a

 5. Write a program that prints the natural numbers between 1 and 5, both included, one per line. Modify it in order to print the numbers consecutively in the same line.

 6. A task can be completed in 12176 seconds. Express this quantity in hours, minutes and seconds. To do that, exploits Python capabilities and do not do any calculation by hand.

 7. What is the output of the following program?

       a=4.912

        b=78

       c="657.16"

       print float(c), int(a), float(b), int(float(c)), str(a)

8. How is the state diagram after the execution of the following program:

a=13
b=a/2
c=a/2.0

d=b*1.5
e=d+1

9. Compute the length of the diagonal of a rectangle whose vertices has length 7 and 9 centimeters, respectively. To do that, exploits Python capabilities and do not do any calculation by hand.

10. Write a function isDivisible(x,y) which receives in input two parameters x and y and prints the message "OK" if x is a multiple of y, prints "NO" otherwise.

11.What is the output of the following program?

a=10
b=5
c=a%b
d=a/b
print not((d and 1) or (c and 0))

 

 

12.Given the fact(n) function, defined as follow:

 def fact(n):

if (n==0):
return 1
else:
return n*fact(n-1)
13.Write a function sqrt(n) which prints the square root of the parameter n if n>0. If n<0, the function should terminate its execution. The parameter n is read in input from the keyboard

14.Given the function fun(x,y), defined as follows:

def fun(x,y):
if 0<x<20:
if x<y<(x**2):
print "1"
else:
print "0"
else:
print "2"

 

 

 

15. Write the output of fun(x,y) in the following
cases:
(i) x=10, y=50
(ii) x=10, y=101
(iii) x=30, y=101

 

 

 

16.Write the function farenheit(c) which returns the Farenheit equivalent to a Celsius temperature c:

17.Write a function gcd(a,b) which returns the greatest common divisor of two non-zero integers a and b.

18.What is the output of the following program? Use state diagrams if useful.

count=0
i=5
while i>0:
j=0
while j<i:
count=count+(i-j)
j=j+1
i=i-1
print count

 

19. An integer number is said to be a perfect number if the sum of its factors (but not the number itself) is equal to the number. For example, 6 is a perfect number, because 6=1+2+3. Write a function perfect(n), which returns True whether parameter n is a perfect number.

 

 

20.Encapsulate the function perfect(n) in a function tablePerfect(m), which prints out all the perfect numbers between 1 and m.

 

 

21. Write a function prime(n) which returns True iff parameter n is a prime number. Encapsulate the function prime(n) in a function tablePrime(m), which prints out all the prime numbers between 1 and m.

 


 posted by Assiel TWAGIRIMANA


 

 

 

GROUPWORK OF GENERAL PAPER TERM

CLASS: S6 (ALL)

Divide yourselves in  groups  and do research on these following topics

Date for submission:28/8/2015 and presentation begin on August 31, 2015

 

1) Examine and reflect on various forms of

art including architecture, painting,

fashion, photography, sculpture and

music

 

2)Explore traditional arts and crafts from

Rwanda and the rest of the world and

their influences

 

3)Explain the role of national heritage and

cultural preservation in the arts

4)Differentiate between forms of literature

including fiction, non-fiction,

biography, diary, poetry etc.

 

5) Illustrate the role of censorship and

freedom of speech in relation to

literature throughout history

 

6)Discuss the history and development of

literature locally and globally

7)Evaluate the effects of tourism on

culture and the promotion of tourism

based on culture

8) Explain the importance of health

education including diet, HIV/AIDS,

hygiene and reproductive health...

 

9) Consider the impact of health education

on a population including malnutrition,

reproductive health, birth rates,

mortality rates etc.

 

10) Explore the impact of migration on

population dynamics and culture

 

11) Illustrate the factors related to feeding

the global population

12) Explore and discuss importance of

various forms of communication

including the internet and mobile

phones

 

13) Illustrate role of ICT in creating a global

community

 

14) Demonstrate the importance of the

responsible use of communication tools

by individuals and communities

15) Analyse the impact of population growth to

family, national and global economy

 

Posted by Teacher Jean Claude NKESHIMANA

 

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 Instructions:   

  • The  holidays package consist of two different subjects include Economics and Computer Science and GEography
  • The student has to choose the one that he/she is concerned with.
  • Submission date :  August 8th 2016
  • Attempt all questions
  • The student will not be allowed to enter in class without submitting the work
  • This work will be recorded as the first quiz in Third Term

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ECONOMICS HOLIDAYS PACKAGE

SENIOR SIX MCE, MEG AND HEG

1. Distinguish between the following (a) share and stocks (b) Memorandum of association and article of association (c) share and bonds

2. Distinguish between private and public enterprise. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

3. Define the term short run, long run and very long run as used in production economics.

4. Explain the following form of output and use a well labeled diagram to show the relationship among them (a) total product (b)Marginal product (c)Average product

5. State the law of diminishing returns and distinguish it from the law of variable factor proportions. Describe its limitation and application

6. Explain the term “Return to scale “as used in production economics.

7.what are the costs of production? Distinguish between the following (a) implicit cost and explicit costs.(b)prime costs and supplementary costs.

8. Explain the following terms and use well labeled diagrams to show relationship among of them;

(a) Total costs, Total fixed costs and Total variable costs.

(b)Average cost, Average fixed costs, Average variable cost and Marginal costs.

9. Why is the short-run average cost curve U-shaped.

10. Distinguish between Economies of scale and diseconomies of scale. Account for the survival of small firm alongside the large firm in your country.

11.Bliefly example the following concepts(a) Total revenue (b)Average Revenue (c) Marginal Revenue (d)Normal profits (e)Abnormal Profits

12. Distinguish between firm and an industry in term of their nature, supply curves and equilibrium.

13. What factors influence the location of industries in your country?

14. Distinguish between location of firms and localization of firm (industries).Describe the advantages and disadvantages of localization of industries.

15. What conditions are assumed in perfect competition? Distinguish between perfect competition and pure competitions.

17. Explain how a firm in perfect completion attains equilibrium in short run and long run.

18. Using a well -labeled diagram, distinguish between shutdown point and break- even point of a firm in perfect competition.

19. Why may a firm remains operating even if it does not cover the total cost of production?

20. Discribe the advantages and disadvantages of perfect competition.

21.Define”Monopoly”.Explain the demand curve and equilibrium position of monopolist. Why is it that a monopolist firm does not have a supply curve?

22.(a)Define price discrimination. What condition must be present for price discrimination to be successful?(b)Describe the advantages of price discrimination .

23. Describe the advantages of Monopoly. Explain how and why Monopoly should be controlled

24. How monopolists stop other firm from joining the market to form an industry? Give examples of monopoly undertaking in E. Africa.

25. Distinguish between Monopoly and perfect competition

26. What is monopolistic competition? Give examples in E. Africa.

27. Using well-labeled diagrams, explain the short –run and long run equilibrium position of a firm in monopolistic competition

28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of monopolistic competition?

29. Explain the following concepts (a) optimum of a firm (b) excess capacity of a firm

30. Distinguish between monopoly and monopolistic competition

31. (a) define oligopoly. Give an example of oligopoly in east Africa

(b) What is a “kinked demand curve”? Explain why the marginal revenue curve of a firm in oligopoly has different slopes.

32. (a) use a well-labeled diagram to show the equilibrium position of a firm in oligopoly.

     (b) Give an example of e cartel in E. Africa. Has it been successful? If so why?

33. a) Distinguish between injections and leakages in an open economy.

     b) State any three examples of leakages in your country.

   c) Give any four factors which influence the rate of savings in your country.

 Prepared  and Posted by Teacher MAOMBI JOSAPHAT (Tel: 0788811603/0726262602)

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ECONOMICS HOLIDAYS PACKAGE

SENIOR FIVE MCE, MEG AND HEG

1. What is price mechanism? Is it functioning properly in your country? If not why?

2. What roles do prices play in the allocation of resources? Do they always achieve the best results? How can the defects be corrected?

3. Explain the causes of greater fluctuations in prices of agricultural products. How can the government reduce the effects of such fluctuations?

4. Use well labeled diagrams to explain the cobweb theory. How is it applicable to agriculture in your country?

5. What are price controls? Give examples of price controls in your country.

6. (i) explain the following concepts(use graphs where necessary) (a) consumer’s behavior (b) total utility (c) marginal utility (d) disutility (e) the law of diminishing marginal utility (f) the indifference curve (g) the budget line.

   (ii) Account for the difference in price of water and gold.

7. Explain how the consumer attains his/her equilibrium using: (a) the utility approach (b) the indifference curve approach

8. Use well labeled diagrams to explain the meaning of the following: (a) substitution effect (b) income effect (c) price effect (d) consumer’s surplus (e) producer’s surplus

9. a) Define the term “factors of production”.

   b) Explain how factors of production are rewarded in the factor market.

10. Relate the marginal productivity theory to the demand curve for factors of production (assume a perfectly competitive factor market).

11. Explain how prices of factors of production are determined in a perfectly competitive factor market.

12. What is “economic rent”? Explain how It is influenced by elasticity of supply and change in demand.

13. Distinguish between the following: (a) economic rent and transfer earning (supply price) (b) transfer earnings and transfer payments (c) economic rent and quasi rent (d) economic rent and commercial rent.

14. What is specialization? Describe its various forms, its advantages and disadvantages.

 15.   Distinguish between the following . (a) Specialization and division of labor (b) specific and non-specific factors of production.

16. a) what is meant by the “price”?

       b) State any five methods of price determination in your country.

17.   Study the table below showing the price and quantity purchased of commodity x and answer the questions that follow:

Price consumers are willing to pay (rwf) Units purchased

300

250

200

150

100

50

1

2

3

4

5

6

  1. What is meant by consumer’s surplus
  2. Calculate the consumers surplus if 4 units of the commodity were purchased at Rwf 150.

18.Suppose that demand is given by the equation QD=500 – 50P, where QD is quantity demanded, and P is the price of the good. Supply is described by the equation              QS= 50 + 25P where QS is quantity supplied. Find the equilibrium price and quantity.

19.The respective market demand and supply schedules are given as follows:

D=10,000-2Q     and S=4000+Q

Where Q stands for quantity demanded, S for quantity supplied and Q for units.

Required: a) Calculate the equilibrium price and quantity in the market

  1. Suppose that P is fixed at 1000 francs per unit, determine whether there is a shortage or surplus in the market.

20. a) Define the term marginal propensity to save

       b) Given that: the level of Gross domestic product is 300 million $; the increase in national investment expenditure is 50 million $;and the marginal propensity to save is 0.2; calculate the final level of income.

21 a) Distinguish between injections and leakages in an open economy.

     b) State any three examples of leakages in your country.

     c) Give any four factors which influence the rate of savings in your country.

22.a)Distinguish between.

i) Standard of living and cost of living.

ii) National income valued at factor cost and national income valued at market price.

b) Explain the factors that influence people’s standard of living in an economy.

23. a) What is an “inflationary gap?”

b) How an inflationary gap in an economy be closed?

24. Describe the three approaches used in measuring national income.

25. Given that the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) in a two sector economy is 80 %, initial investment is Rwf 20,000,000 million ;initial level of income is RWF 80,000,000 million and if the investment increased by Rwf 5,000 million. Calculate the:

a) Multiplier

b) New equilibrium level of income

26. a) Distinguish between money supply and demand for money.

     b) Mention any four determinants of money supply in an economy.

27. a) What do you understand by “commercial banks create money”

     b) What are the qualities of good money?

28. a) How does a monopoly firm maximize profit in the short run?

   b) Examine the implications of existence of monopoly in your country.

29.a) State any four methods of determining prices of commodities in your country.

           b) Distinguish between:

                                         i) Total costs and marginal costs of a firm.

                                         ii) Break even and shut down point of a firm.

30. a) What is meant “price discrimination”?

   b) Discuss different forms of price discrimination.

Prepared by Teacher MAOMBI JOSAPHAT (Tel: 0788811603/0726262602)

 
 ......................................................................................................................................................

ECONOMICS HOLIDAYS PACKAGE

SENIOR FOUR MCE, MEG, HEG AND LEG

1. a) what is production?

   b) At what level is it carried out?

2. What are the economies of scale? How do they arise?

3. Study the following table and answer the questions which follow:

Number of workers(L) Land(fixed) in acres Total product(TP) Average product(AV) Marginal product(MP)
1 200 4    
2 200 14    
3 200 25.5    
4 200 40    
5 200 60    
6 200 72    
7 200 77    
8 200 80    
9 200 81    
10 200 75    
  1. Fill in the column for AP and MP
  2. Identify the point of:
    1. Diminishing marginal returns
    2. Diminishing average returns
    3. Negative marginal returns

4. a) What is meant by “merger”?

   b) What are the types of merger?

   c) Discuss the benefits and costs of merger?

5. a) Differentiate between horizontal integration and vertical integration of firms in an industry.

     b) Explain the merits and demerits of integration of firms in an economy.

6.   Explain the term “Returns to scale” as used in production economics.

7. Complete the worksheet

Units Fixed costs Variable costs Total cost AFC ATC MC
0 1500 -        
100   5,000        
200   8,000        
300   9,000        
400   11,000        
500   15,000        
600   21,500        
700   29,000        

8. A company is planning to expand its business over the next five years. Identify and explain five economies of scale that might be available to the business.

9. a) Distinguish between “Location” and “localization” of firms.

   b) An overseas company would like to open a new factory in Rwanda. Explain 5 factors would influence the choice of location.

10. Distinguish between:

           a) Firm and industry

           b) Implicit and explicit cost

           c) Fixed and variable cost

           d)Isocost and isoquant

11. a) what is meant by the “price”?

       b) State any five methods of price determination in your country.

12.   Study the table below showing the price and quantity purchased of commodity x and answer the questions that follow:

Price consumers are willing to pay (rwf) Units purchased

300

250

200

150

100

50

1

2

3

4

5

6

  1. What is meant by consumer’s surplus
  2. Calculate the consumers surplus if 4 units of the commodity were purchased at Rwf 150.

13. a) Explain any eight causes of agricultural price fluctuations in your country.

   b) What are the effects of such price fluctuations in your country?

14. Suppose that demand is given by the equation QD=500 – 50P, where QD is quantity demanded, and P is the price of the good. Supply is described by the equation             QS= 50 + 25P where QS is quantity supplied. Find the equilibrium price and quantity.

15. The respective market demand and supply schedules are given as follows:

D=10,000-2Q     and S=4000+Q

Where Q stands for quantity demanded, S for quantity supplied and Q for units.

Required: a) Calculate the equilibrium price and quantity in the market

16. Assume that a firm can sell as many units of its product as it can manufacture in a month at

£18 each. It has to pay out £240 fixed costs plus a marginal cost of £14 for each unit produced.

How much does it need to produce to break even?

17. Jaimin has $10,000 to invest and wants to have at least $25,000 in the account in 10 yr for his daughter’s college education fund. If the account pays interest compounded continuously, what interest rate is required?

18. Let P = 20 – 5Q be a demand function

  1. How many units will the firm sell if the price is 15?
  2. What price should the firm set if it wants to sell 3 units?
  3. Compute the marginal revenue corresponding to this function
  4. Calculate price elasticity of demand when price moves from 1 to 3.
  5. What is the relationship between the slope of the demand curve and the price elasticity of demand?
  6. Calculate the total revenue function for the firm and find its maximum

Prepared by Teacher MAOMBI JOSAPHAT (Tel: 0788811603/0726262602)

 .......................................................................................................

 SUBJECT: GEOGRAPHY    

  SENIOR SIX: HEG, MEG & MPG         

    PART I: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

                                    SECTION A: 55 Marks

1.a) Distinguish between fog and hailstones/2

 b) Explain the conditions which lead to the formation of fog in anenvironment. /3

2. a) Explain four factors influencing climate of Africa./2

b) Complete the table below/3

Element of Climate

Measuring instrument

Lines joining places which receive the same amount of element of weather

 

Rain gauge

 
   

Isotherms

sunshine

   

3.a) With the help of diagrams, explain what is Environmental lapse rate and Temperature inversion./4

 b) Examine only two factors responsible for aridity in East Africa./2

  c) Outline two steps taken to control desertification in East Africa./2

4.a) Explain three processes of soil formation./3

b) A part from living organisms, explain two other factors influencing soil formation./2

c) State six component of soil./3

5. a) Classify the following rocks according to their categories./2.5

Rocks

Igneous rock

Sedimentary rock

Metamorphic rock

Gneiss

 

 

 

coal

 

 

 

limestone

 

 

 

basalt

 

 

 

marble

 

 

 

b) State any three economic importance of sedimentary rocks./1.5

6.a) What is meant by faulting./1

b) Differentiate between rift valley and graben./2

 c) Explain three theories of rift valley formation./3

7.a) Explain two processes of wind erosion ./2

    b) Explain three landform features related to wind erosion./3

    c) Explain three landform features related to wind deposition./3

8. a) Define what is coral landform./1

 b) Identify and describe the factors which favour coral landform formation./3

 c) Identify the various coral landforms in East Africa./3

9.a) Define glaciations./1

  b) Briefly identify the factors that have favoured the occurrence of the phenomenon of glaciations./5

c) Identify three processes that lead to the formation of glacial erosion./3

10.a) Examine any 5 factors leading to the formation of deltas./5

 b) Assess the importance of deltas in East Africa./5

                                                   SECTION B:  (45marks)

11.a) Define River rejuvenation./2

 b) Enumerate various landform features resulting from river rejuvenation along river profile./4

 c) Explain what is river capture and landform features resultenbsp;d from river capturing./5

 d) Identify the factors which influence the occurrence of river capture../4

12.a) Describe the characteristics of a cold ocean currents./4

 b) With reference to specific examples, explain the influence of cold ocean currents on the climate of the adjacent land masses./6

 c) Explain the impact of ocean current on human activities./5

13.a) Distinguish between solar radiation and terrestrial radiation./5

 b) Examine five factors that influence the amount of solar radiation received in a place.10

 14. Study the data on a given weather station below and answer the question that follow:

Month

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Temp 0c

30

31

31

31

30

29

28

28

29

29

29

30

Precip.mm

250

250

325

300

213

25

25

25

100

275

380

200

a)      Describe the type of climate on this weather station./1

b)      Calculate the temperature range of this station./1

c)      Calculate Mean annual  rainfall./1

d)     Calculate annual temperature average./1

e)      Construct the rainfall simple line graph for this station./11

PART II: HUMAN AND ECONOMIC  GEOGRAPHY

                                    SECTION A

1. a)  Explain the meaning of nomadic pastoralism./2

   b) What is land carrying capacity with reference the livestock farming./3

 2. a) Define the following terms :i) Shifting cultivation/1

                                                     ii) Rotational bush fallowing/1

 b) Give three characteristics of shifting cultivation and three of Rotational bush fallowing./3

 c) Discuss the similarities of Rotational bush fallowing and shifting cultivation. /5

3. a) What is meant by intensive subsistence farming?/1

 b) Name three countries where intensive subsistence farming is practiced./3

 c) Identify three characteristics intensive subsistence farming dominated by wet rice cultivation./3

d) Explain only three conditions favoring the growing of wet land rice cultivation in southeast Asia./3

4. a) What does transhumance mean?/3

  b) Explain two characteristics of nomadic pastoralism./2

  c) What is the contribution of pastoralism./5

5.a) By giving relevant examples, differentiate between renewable and non renewable natural resources./4

  b) Give and explain six reasons that have made New York an import sea port./6

6.a) what is meant population explosion./2

b) Examine two factors influencing distribution of population in the world./2

 c) Outline at least six population problems of advanced countries./3

 d) What are the problems of under population (give only six).3

          

                   SECTION B

7. Suggest ways how livestock farming in Rwanda can be improved./15

8. a) Describe the commune system of farming in china./3

 b) What were the aims of the communes?/7

 c) Explain the factors which favoured the development of communal farming in china./8

9. a) With 3 examples, explain what is multipurpose river project ? ./2

    b) Give five advantages and five disadvantages of multipurpose river project./8

10.a) Identify the major industries in the Ruhr industrial region in Germany./3

    b) Explain six factors which have favoured industrial development in the Ruhr region./6

  c) What are problems which facing the Ruhr industrial region.(give only six)./6

11.a) Examine the factors influencing the development of urban centers./7

 b) Outline the problems associated with urban development./8

                                   Posted by NDABARINZE Jean Bosco            

.............................................................

HOLIDAYS ASSIGNMENT

SUBJECT:COMPUTER SCIENCE

CLASS: S4MCE & MPC

  1. Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart to read two sides of a rectangle and calculates the area.
  2. Write a C++ program to declare two integers, one float variables and assign 10, 15, and 12.6 to them respectively. It then prints these values on the screen.
  3. Write a C++ program to display even numbers from 0 to 14 using while loop.
  4. Write a C ++program to count numbers between 1 to 100 not divisible by 2, 3, and 5 using for loop.
  5. Write a C++ program to display the stars as shown below using nested for loop.

*

**

* **

* * * *

   6. Write a C++ program using loops to display the series of numbers as given below:

1

1 2

1 2 3

3 2 1

2 1

1

 7. Write a program in C++ to calculate the factorial of any given integer number.

8. Write a C++ program that implements the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations ax2+bx+c=0.

9. Define computer network

10. Explain the types of network

11. Describe the use of world wide web

12. What is a webpage? How can it be created?

13. Give the example of language that can be used to design a webpage.

14. Which software do you need in your computer to be able to access to a website?

15. Write the full for the following acronyms:

WWW, LAN, MAN, WAN, HTTP, DNS, HTML, CSS

Prepared and posted by Assiel TWAGIRIMANA

Tel: 0782042171/0728727857

..........................................................................

HOLIDAYS ASSIGNMENT

SUBJECT: COMPUTER SCIENCE

CLASS: S5MCE & MPC

  1. Describe the generations of programming languages
  2. What do you understand by operating system?
  3. Explain the two types of operating system
  4. Explain the functions of an operating system.
  5. Explain the steps involved in algorithm and program development.
  6. What are the functions of the following codes?
  • ls
  • cd
  • cp
  • rm
  • pwd
  • cat
  • ip config
  • ping
  • chkdsk
  • comp
  • erase
  • deletree
  • dir
  • restore
  • undelete

7. Define computer network

8. Explain the types of network

9. Describe the use of world wide web 

10. Which software do you need in your computer to be able to access to a website?

11. Write the full for the following acronyms:

                  WWW, LAN, CAN, MAN, WAN, DNS, URL

12. In computer networks 

  • How do you define a Protocol?
  • Give the full form of each of the following acronyms:
    1. HTTP
    2. FTP
    3. TCP/IP
  • Explain the functions of the following protocols that come with the IP:      
    1. HTTP
    2. SMTP
    3. POP
  • Describe how the following protocols work:
    1. SMTP
    2. MIME
    3. IMAP

    Prepared and posted by Assiel TWAGIRIMANA Tel: 0782042171/0728727857

  • .......................................................

COMPUTER SCIENCE HOLIDAYS ASSIGNMENT

SENIOR SIX MCE & MPC


  1. Distinguish the features of fourth generation from the first generation of computers.
  2. Differentiate the terms Bit, Byte from Nibble.
  3. Identify the components of a hard disk.
  4. Choose the appropriate term:

A hard disk is divided into tracks which are further subdivided into:

  1. Clusters
  2. Sectors
  3. Vectors
  4. Heads
  5. None of the above
  6. A “1.44 MB” floppy disk has 80 cylinders (numbered 0 to 79), 2 heads(numbered 0 to 1) and 18 sectors (numbered 1 to 18). Calculate its capacity in sectors.
  7. Distinguish seek time from data rate
  8. How is the memory in multi-process system managed?
  9. Describe the Trash can icon in the Linux
  10. Explain the importance of: 
    1. Plug and play system
    2. Shell
    3. Kernel
  11. Identify the Elements of motherboard.
  12. Why is a hard disk technically 80 GB but the operating system treats it as 72GB only?/
  13. Tick in the cell where the device matches with the device type as shown below:
No DEVICES INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES
1 Touchpad      
2 Light Pen      
3 Scanner      
4 Electronic Whiteboard      
5 RAID      
6 Speaker      
7 Monitor      
8 PC Card      

14. What are the functions of the following codes?

  1. ls
  2. cd
  3. cp
  4. rm
  5. pwd
  6. cat
  7. ip config
  8. ping
  9. chkdsk
  10. comp
  11. erase
  12. deletree
  13. dir
  14. restore
  15. undelete

15. In computer networks or internet:

  1. How do you define a Protocol?
  2. Give the full form of each of the following acronyms:
    1. FTP 
    2. TCP/IP
    3. DNS

      c.  Explain the functions of the following protocols that come with the IP:        

  1. HTTP
  2. SMTP
  3. POP

     d.  Describe how the following protocols work:

  1. SMTP
  2. MIME
  3. IMAP

16. Describe the generations of programming languages

17. What do you understand by operating system? Explain the two types of operating system and State the functions of an operating system.

18. Explain the steps involved in algorithm and program development.

19. Describe the following computer language paradigms: Procedural, Object-oriented, and event oriented

20. Differentiate:

  1. Program statement and program instruction
  2. Local and global variable declaration
  3. Derived and integral data types
  4. Private and protected members
  5. Expression and operators
  6. Source code and Object code

21. Write a program to input the number of eggs bought. The program then should output the number of dozens of eggs bought and the extra eggs (a dozen contains 12 eggs).

 NB: If eggs bought are 30, the program outputs 2 dozens and 6 eggs. Use the % operator.

22. Write a C program to display even numbers from 0 to 14 using while loop.

23. Write a C program to count numbers between 1 to 100 not divisible by 2, 3, and 5 using for loop.

24. Write a C program to display the stars as shown below using nested for loop.

*

**

* **

* * * *

25. Write a C program using loops to display the series of numbers as given below:

       1

       1 2

       1 2 3

       3 2 1

       2 1

       1

26. Write a C program to perform addition and subtraction of two matrices whose orders are up to 5X5.

27. Write a C program to arrange the numbers in increasing and decreasing (ascending and descending order) using iterative conditions and loops.

28. Design a class to display the details of a book, the number of pages and the price.

29. Write a C++ program to convert seconds to days, hours, minutes and seconds. If a task can be completed in 12176 seconds; Express this quantity in hours, minutes and seconds, do not do any calculation by hand.

30. Write a program in C++ to calculate the factorial of any given integer number.

31. Write a C++ program that implements the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations.

32. Write a C program for an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) transaction while currencies are 100, 50, 20,10 and 5.  

33. With skills gotten from VB do the following:

  1. Briefly explain the following terms:
  •  Property
  • Object
  • Event
  • Procedure
  • Variable
  • Function
  • Literal
  • Comment
  • Iteration
  • Argument

b. Assign the prefixes for controls and data types as used in VB

  • Combo box
  • Picture box
  • Timer
  • Currency
  • Integer

34. Write a visual basic program which will help the user to enter three numbers using three textboxes and display the largest number on the label box.

35. Use a VB application to create a calculator that can add, subtract, multiply and divide two numbers given by the user. For each sub procedure, the algorithm would consist of input, output and a series of process steps: 

  • Draw the interface and declare the variables for two textboxes (txtOne and txtTwo) and a label to display the answer (lblAnswer).
  • Use Val function to change string from textbox to a number, then an assignment statement to put that value into the variable, and repeat for second number.
  • Ensure that it is not possible to divide by zero, either by entering nothing or by entering zero.
  • Add a clear command button with the following code to allow the user to do another calculation. Use the SetFocus method that returns the cursor to the first textbox.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOUTHERN PROVINCE

MUHANGA DISTRICT

III rd Term

July, 2015

COMPUTER SCIENCE EXAMINATION

SENIOR 6 MCE & MPC

MARKING SCHEME 

SECTION A: /55marks

  1. List the steps required to connect a computer using a UPS

Connecting a computer with Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), follow the steps below:

a)      Connect a PC power plug to a UPS output socket. /0.5 marks

b)      Connect the UPS power cord to the wall socket. /0.5 marks

c)      Turn on the UPS and then the PC. /0.5 marks

2. What do the following acronyms stand for?

a)      ATX: Advanced Technology Extended /0.5 marks

b)      BTX: Balanced Technology Extended/0.5 marks

c)      RAM: Random Access Memory/0.5 marks

d)      IRQ: Interrupt ReQuest/0.5 marks

e)      DMA: Direct Memory Access/0.5 marks

f)        SIMM: Single Inline Memory Module/0.5 marks

g)      DIMM: Dual Inline Memory Model/0.5 marks

h)      SCSI: Small Computer System Interface/0.5 marks

i)        NIC: Network Interface Card/0.5 marks

 3. State any three differences between SATA and IDE computer technologies

SATA vs IDE

 SATA VS IDE Cables / 1 mark

The SATA cable or Serial ATA cables are only 7 pins wide compared to the IDE Ribbon Cable which is 40 pins. The SATA cables are also longer then the ribbon cables (some up to 1m) which make them more useful in large cases. The PATA or IDE cables are only 45cm long and can connect two hard drives to the motherboard while the SATA cable connects only one hard drive to the motherboard.

Speed / 1mark

The next step in IDE vs SATA is to work out the data transfer speeds. IDE (PATA) transfers data from the speeds of 5MB/sec up to 133MB/Sec (ATA100/133). SATA however data transfer speeds range from 150MB/sec to SATA II which doubles it to 300MB/sec. SATA can even transfer up to 600MB/sec.

Jumpers/ 1 mark

IDE vs SATA in the aspect of jumpers again goes the way of SATA. With the IDE cable you need to always mess around with the jumpers since there may be two hard drives or two CD drives or one of each on the one cable. With SATA there is only the one cable so there are no jumpers to mess around with. If you are new to computers then a SATA hard drive will be easier to install.

 Other related point earn 1 mark

 In summary of SATA vs IDE, the SATA cable is smaller, faster and therefore better. It can reach further then a IDE cable and will also reduce the obstruction to air cooling which IDE cables can contribute to. The cables also transfer data much faster (more crucial if you have two or more hard drives) and are easier to install since there are no jumpers. The only downfall of the SATA is that they easily fall out of their positions and that you can only have one drive per cable.

 4. A multiprogramming operating system uses partitioning scheme and divides the 60MB of available memory into four partitions of 10MB, 12MB, 18MB, and 20MB. The first program to be run needs 17MB and occupies the third partition. The second program needs 8MB and occupies the first partition. The third program needs 10.5MB and occupies the second partition. Finally, the fourth program needs 20MB and occupies the fourth partition. What is the total memory used? What is the total memory wasted? What percentage of memory is wasted? 

Partition

Available capacity

Memory used

Memory wasted

1st Partition

10MB

8MB with the second program

2MB

2nd Partition

12MB

10.5MB with the third program

1.5MB

3rd Partition

18MB

17MB with the first program

1MB

4th Partition

20MB

20MB with the fourth program

0MB

Total Capacity

60 MB

55.5MB

4.5MB

The total memory is 60MB

The total memory used=8+10.5+17+20=55.5MB  /1mark

Total memory wasted=60MB-55.5MB=4.5MB   /1mark

The percentage of memory wasted:     ==7.5%   /1mark

 5.      Give a step-by-step process of how you would uninstall a program from your computer

a) Go on start button to your pc, Left click on it /0.5marks

b) Drag to Control Panel /1marks

c) Choose Uninstall /0.5marks

d) Select the program you want to remove /0.5marks

e) Double click on that program or Right click on it the choose uninstall /0.5marks

 

 6. Write the DOS commands: 

 

 a)  MKDIR: To create new directory /0.5marks

b) DIR: To display the content of a directory/0.5marks

c) Copy Con: To create new file/0.5marks

d) CD\: To directly jump to root directory/0.5marks

   7. What will be output of following code?

a)

max 10+2

i=max*max;

the process is going to be proceed like

i=10+2*10+2 [with the high precedence priority of multiplication]  /1mark

i=10+20+2=32  /1mark

 b) #define A 4-2

    #define B 3-1

    int ratio=A/B;

ratio=4-2/3-1 [the highest precedence priority is division]  /1mark

2/3=0.666 and because it is an integer division the quotient is 0; /0.5marks

So 4-0-1=3; The n ratio=3  /0.5marks

 c) int n, k=5;

n=(100%k?k+1:k-1);

n=100%5?5+1:5-1  /1mark

the value of 100%5 is 0; then the compiler will take the value of the second expression

cout<< “n=”<<n<< “k=”<<k<<endl;

now the output is:

n=4 k=5  /1mark

 d)  int i=5, j=6, k=7, n=3;

     cout<<i+j*k-k%n<<endl;

     5+6*7-7%3=5+42-1=47-1=46   /1mark

     cout<< i/n<<endl;

     i/n=5/3 (as it is a division between integers the result will also be integer)

     i/n=1

    output:  /1mark

46

1

 8. Distinguish the four different families of computers.

  • Microcomputer/personal computer /0.5marks
  • Minicomputer /0.5marks
  • Mainframe computer /0.5marks
  • Supercomputer /0.5marks

 9. A “1.44MB” floppy disk has 80 cylinders (numbered 0 to 79), 2 heads (numbered 0 to 1) and 18 sectors (numbered 1 to 18). Calculate, its capacity in sectors.

Total storage capacity of a floppy/hard disk=total number of sectors*512 bytes per sector  /1mark

 Total number of sectors =sectors per side*number of heads

 Sectors per side=Tracks per side*sectors per track

 Total number of sectors=(80*18)*2=2880   /2marks

 Total storage capacity=2880*512 bytes /sector=1474560 bytes (1.44MB)   /2marks

 10. State five differences   between DOS and Linux

DOS does not provide any graphical user interface, whereas Linux does.  /0.5marks

DOS does not support the concept of multi-users; whereas Linux does. /0.5marks

DOS also does not have any in built security features, whereas Linux does /0.5marks

Basically DOS has had very different goals from that of Linux. /0.5marks

MS-DOS is a 16-bit operating system whereas Linux use 32-bits and 64-bit /0.5marks

MS-DOS is a closed source, Linux is a open source /0.5marks

Files and directories

The files in Linux can be very long, up-to 255 characters, and they do not always have extensions. /0.5marks

The path names are separated by forward slashes (/) in Linux whereas DOS and Windows uses back slashes (\).    /0.5marks

 11.  The Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) of two numbers is a largest positive number which can     divide both numbers without any reminder. Write a C program for finding the greatest common divisor of two given numbers.

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{int x,y,m,i;

printf(“Enter any two numbers:”);

scanf(“%d %d”,&x,&y);

if(x>y)

m=y;

else

m=x;

for(i=m;i>=1;i--)

{

if(x%i==0&&y%i==0)

{

printf(“GCD of two numbers is:%d”,i);

break;

}

}

return 0;

}

 #include<stdio.h>

main() {
   int m, n, i;
   printf("Enter two integers: ");
   scanf("%d%d", &m, &n);
   do {
      i = m / n;
      n = m % n;
      m = i;
   } while ( n != 0 ) ;
   printf("Greatest common diviser: %d", m);
   return 0;
}

 Or

#include 
int find_gcf(int p, int q);
int main (void)
{
  int p, q, gcf;
  printf("Enter p:");
  scanf("%d", &p);
  printf("Enter q:");
  scanf("%d", &q);
&nbsstrongp; gcf = find_gcf(p, q);
  printf("GCF of %d and %d is %d.", p, q, gcf);
  return (0);
}
int find_gcf(int p, int q)
{
  int r;
  r = q % p;
  while (r)
  {
    q = p;
    p = r;
    r = q % p;
  }
  return(p);
}

 Or

#include
main()
{
        int gcd(int a,int b)
        {
            int c;
            while(1)
            {
                   c = a%b;
                   if(c==0)
                  return b;
                   a = b;
                   b = c;
                }
            }
            getch();
        }

 Or

#include<stdio.h>

 int main(){

    int x,y,m,i;

    printf("Insert any two number: ");

    scanf("%d%d",&x,&y);

    if(x>y)

         m=y;

    else

         m=x;

    for(i=m;i>=1;i--)

{

         if(x%i==0&&y%i==0){

             printf("\nHCF of two number is : %d",i) ;

             break;

         }

    }

    return 0;

}

 12. Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart to read two sides of a rectangle and calculates the area.

 

/4 marks

 

 13. Four/10 advantages of using relations database system in tables

  •   Relational database bring tables together
  •   Structured Query language is easy to understand
  •   Security of data
  •   Sharing data
  •   No duplicate date
  •   Data integrity and safety
  •   Data access
  •   Data independency
  •   Backup and recovery
  •   Concurrent transaction
  •   Increased productivity

14. Ramshewak goes to market for buying some fruits and vegetables. He ishaving a currency of Rs 500 with him for marketing. From a shop he purchases 2.0 kg Apple priced Rs. 50.0 per kg,  1.5 kg Mango  priced Rs.35.0 per kg, 2.5 kg Potato priced Rs.10.0 per kg, and 1.0 kg Tomato priced Rs.15 per kg. 

He gives the currency of Rs. 500 to the shopkeeper. 

Use the algorithm to find out the amount shopkeeper  will return to Ramshewak and tell the total item purchased. 

 

Before we write algorithm for solving above problem let we find out what are the inputs

to the algorithm and what is expected output. /0.5marks

Inputs to the algorithm are:

1. Amount of different items purchase, for example 2.0 kg Apple etc.

2. Price of the items, for example Mango is Rs. 35.0 per kg

3. Total amount given to the shopkeeper  

Expected output:

Amount to be returned by shopkeeper after deducting total price of the purchased vegetables and fruits, and total items purchased.

Algorithm:

Step1: Total =0, i = 1; /0.5marks

Spet2: Read amount purchased and unit price of item/0.5marks

Step3: Total=Total + amount of itemi* price per unit of item/0.5marks

Step4: i= i+1 /0.5marks

Step5: Repeat Step 2 to 4 for each purchased item /0.5marks

Step6: Read Total amount given to the shopkeeper as Given Amount  /0.5marks

Step7: RefundAmount= GivenAmount-Total /0.5marks

Step8: Print amount to be refund is Rs.: RefundAmount  /0.5marks

Step9: Print total item purchased are: i  /0.5marks

 

 

SECTION B: Answer any three Questions of Your Choice. /30marks

15. Define a class to represent a bank account. Include:

Data members:

a) Name of the depositor

b)  Account number

c) Type of account

d) Balance amount in the account

Member functions:

a) To assign initial values

b) To deposit an amount

c) To withdraw an amount after checking the balance

d) To display name and balance

Write a main function to test the program /10marks

 

#include <iostream.h>
#include <iomanip.h>
#include <conio.h>

class bank
{
char name[20];
int acno;
char actype[20];
int bal;
public :
void opbal(void);
void deposit(void);
void withdraw(void);
void display(void);
};

void bank :: opbal(void)
{
cout<<endl<<endl;
cout<<"Enter Name :-";
cin>>name;
cout<<"Enter A/c no. :-";
cin>>acno;
cout<<"Enter A/c Type :-";
cin>>actype;
cout<<"Enter Opening Balance:-";
cin>>bal;
}

void bank :: deposit(void)
{
cout<<"Enter Deposit amount :-";
int deposit=0;
cin>>deposit;
deposit=deposit+bal;
cout<<"\nDeposit Balance = "<<deposit;
bal=deposit;
}

void bank :: withdraw(void)
{
int withdraw;
cout<<"\nBalance Amount = "<<bal;
cout<<"\nEnter Withdraw Amount :-";
cin>>withdraw;
bal=bal-withdraw;
cout<<"After Withdraw Balance is "<<bal;
}

void bank :: display(void)
{
cout<<endl<<endl<<endl;
cout<<setw(50)<<"DETAILS"<<endl;
cout<<setw(50)<<"name "<<name<<endl;
cout<<setw(50)<<"A/c. No. "<<acno<<endl;
cout<<setw(50)<<"A/c Type "<<actype<<endl;
cout<<setw(50)<<"Balance "<<bal<<endl;
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
bank o1;
int choice;
do
{
cout<<"\n\nChoice List\n\n";
cout<<"1) To assign Initial Value\n";
cout<<"2) To Deposit\n";
cout<<"3) To Withdraw\n";
cout<<"4) To Display All Details\n";
cout<<"5) EXIT\n";
cout<<"Enter your choice :-";
cin>>choice;
switch(choice)
{
case 1: o1.opbal();
break;
case 2: o1.deposit();
break;
case 3: o1.withdraw();
break;
case 4: o1.display();
break;
case 5: goto end;
}
}while(1);
end:
}

or

 

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<string.h>
class bank
{
char name[20];
int ano;
char atype[20];
float bal;
public:
void get(int no,char *n,char *t,float b)
{
strcpy(name,n);
ano=no;
strcpy(atype,t);
bal=b;
}
float deposit()
{
float amt;
cout<<“\nEnter amount: “;
cin>>amt;
bal=bal+amt;
return bal;
}
float withdrw()
{
float amt;
cout<<“\nHow many Rupees withdraw: “;
cin>>amt;
bal=bal-amt;
return bal;
}
void disp()
{
cout<<“\n\nAccount number: “<<ano;
cout<<“\n\nName: “<<name;
cout<<“\n\nAccount type: “<<atype;
cout<<“\n\nDeposit Amount: “<<deposit();
cout<<“\n\nAfter Withdraw Amount balnace: “<<withdrw();
}
};
void main()
{
int n;
char nm[20],t[20];
float a;
bank bk;
clrscr();
cout<<“\nEnter Account no.: “; cin>>n;
cout<<“\nEnter Name: “; cin>>nm;
cout<<“\nEnter account type: “; cin>>t;
cout<<“\nEnter balance amount: “;cin>>a;
bk.get(n,nm,t,a);
bk.disp();
getch();
}

 16.  Convert and show the way you have used.

 

a) (6305)8   = (……….) 2

Octal base uses 3-bits then:

6=110

3=011

0=000

5=101

So (6305)8=(110 011 000 101)2  /1mark

 b) (5D93)16   = (………) 2

Hexadecimal system use 4-bits

then:

5=0101

D=13=1101

9=1001

3=0011

So (5D93)16   = (0101 1101 1001 0011) 2  /1mark

 

c) (11010100001101)2 = (…….) 8

We have to group 3-bits together

011 010 100 001 101

011=3

010=2

100=4

001=1

101=5

Then (11010100001101)2 = (32415) 8  /1mark

d) (32416)8   = (…….) 16

Using binary code

(32416)8=(11010100001110)2 = (…….) 16  /0.5mark

Change 3-bits group in 4-bits

Instead of considering three bits, use four bits as hexadecimal system do:

Grouping four bits together we have: 0011, 0101, 0000, 1110 /0.5mark

0011=3

0101=5

0000=0

1110=14=E

So (32416)8=(0011010100001110)2 = (350E) 16  /1mark

 

e) (3457)10 = (……..)5

3457|5 Rem 2

691|5 Rem 1

138|5 Rem 3

27|5 Rem 2

5|5 Rem 0

1

(3457)10 = (102312)5  /1.5marks

 

f) (B65F)16  =  (…….)10

11*16^3+6*16^2+5*16^1+15*16^0  /1mark

=11*4096+6*256+5*16+15*1

=45056+1536+80+15

=46687

(B65F)16  =  (46687)10   /1mark

 g) Represent “-33” in the signed magnitude form

 

 (33)10=(2^5+1)=(100001)2 /0.5marks

 

 Signed magnitude representation uses 8-bits

Then:

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

 The first bit stands for sign; if it is zero(False), it means the sign is positive, otherwise the sign is negative (if the first bit is 1/True )

 Then  -3310=1 0100001/1mark

Sign

Magnitude

1

0100001

17. Explain the following/10marks

 

 a)      Algorithm

 

An algorithm is a procedure or formula for solving a problem. /1mark

Or

An algorithm is a specific set of instructions for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem/1mark

Or

An algorithm is a set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps /1mark

 b)      Flowchart

A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. /1mark

c)      Program

A computer program, or just a program, is a sequence of instructions, written to perform a specified task on a computer. /1mark

 d)     Program Statement

A computer program statement is an instruction for the computer program to perform an action. /1mark

e)      Computer Programming

  • Programming is creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something. /1mark
  •  Programming is a process of developing and implementing various sets of instructions to enable a computer to do a certain task. /1mark
  •  Computer programming (often shortened to programming) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. /1mark
  • Computer programming is the craft of writing useful, maintainable, and extensible source code which can be interpreted or compiled by a computing system. /1mark

 f)       Object Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around objects rather than "actions" and data rather than logic. /1mark

 g)      Event Oriented Programming Language

In computer programming, event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads. /1mark

 h)      Polymorphism

Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. The most common use of polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent class reference is used to refer to a child class object. /1mark

 i)        Encapsulation

  •   Encapsulation is the packing of data and functions into a single component. The features of encapsulation are supported using classes in most object-oriented programming languages, although other alternatives also exist. /1mark
  •  Encapsulation is an Object Oriented Programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data, and that keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation led to the important OOP concept of data hiding.  /1mark

 j)        Virtual function

  •  In object-oriented programming, a virtual function or virtual method is a function or method whose behavior can be overridden within an inheriting class by a function with the same signature. /1mark
  •   A virtual function is a member function that you expect to be redefined in derived classes. When you refer to a derived class object using a pointer or a reference to the base class, you can call a virtual function for that object and execute the derived class's version of the function. /1mark

 18. To install windows, you can perform the following steps:

Step1: Start your PC and place your CD/DVD in your CD/DVD-Rom drive. Then shut it down. /1mark

Step2: Start the computer again. Windows will start to boot up the computer. /0.5marks

Step3: The screen allows you to install or repair windows. Since we are doing a clean install we will click on install now. /0.5marks

Step4: Read the license terms and tick I accept license terms. Then click next to continue. /0.5marks

Step 5:We will be presented with two options. Upgrade or Custom(Advanced). Since we are doing a clean install we will select Custom (Advanced). /0.5marks

Step 6: Choose where you would like to install windows. If you have one drive, You can click      next to continue, if you have more than one then you need to select the appropriate drive and click next. /0.5marks

Step 7: Windows starts the installation process and starts copying all necessary files to your hard drive. /0.5marks

Step 8: It will go through various stages of the setup and will reboot your system few times

/0.5marks

Step 9: When your PC reboots it attempts to boot from CD/DVD as it is the first boot device. Do not press any key during the boot prompt.  So the windows will continue with the installation by booting from the hard drive. /0.5marks

Step 10: After the reboot, your computer will be prepared for first use. /0.5marks

Step 11: Choose a user name and computer name. Click next to continue /0.5 marks

Step 12: Choose your password. A strong password should include some uppercase and digit characters and numbers more than eight characters in total. /0.5marks

Step 13: Type the product key that came with windows and click next. /0.5marks

Step 14: Help protect your computer and improve windows automatically. Choose recommended settings. /0.5marks

mouse

Step 15: Review your time and settings. Select your time zone, cstrongorrect the date and time and click next to continue. /0.5marks

Step 16: Select your computer’s current location. Either Home, Work, or Public network /0.5marks

Step 17: Windows will now finalize the settings for your computer and restart /0.5marks

Step 18:  After the final restart windows will start to boot up. /0.5marks

Step 19: Windows has now finished being installed. After rebooting, you will see the login screen and you must enter the username and password created earlier. /0.5marks

 19.  Write a C program for an Automated Teller Machine (ATM) transaction while currencies are 5000, 2000 and 1000 

 #include<stdio.h> /0.5marks

 int totalFiveThousand=100;

int totalTwoThousand=100;

int totalOneThousand=100;  /0.5marks

 int main()

{

     unsigned long withdrawAmount;

    unsigned long totalMoney;

     int fivethousand=0,twothousand=0,onethousand=0; /0.5marks

     printf("Enter the amount in multiple of 1000: ");/0.5marks

    scanf("%lu", &withdrawAmount); /0.5marks

     if(withdrawAmount%1000 !=0) /0.5marks

      {

         printf("Invalid amount;"); /0.5marks

         return 0;

       }

     totalMoney=totalFiveThousand*5000 + totalTwoThousand*2000+totalOneThousand*1000; /1mark

     if(withdrawAmount> totalMoney) /0.5marks

{

         printf("Sorry,Insufficient money"); /0.5marks

         return 0;

    }

     fivethousand = withdrawAmount / 5000; /0.5marks

    if(fivethousand > totalFiveThousand) /0.5marks

         fivethousand = totalFiveThousand;

    withdrawAmount = withdrawAmount - fivethousand *5000; /0.5marks

     if (withdrawAmount> 0)

     {

         twothousand = withdrawAmount / 2000; /0.5marks

         if(twothousand> totalTwoThousand) /0.5marks

             twothousand = totalTwoThousand;

         withdrawAmount = withdrawAmount - twothousand * 2000; /0.5marks

    }

     if (withdrawAmount> 0)

         onethousand= withdrawAmount /1000;  /0.5marks

     printf("Total 5000 notes: %d\n", fivethousand);

    printf("Total  2000 notes: %d\n", twothousand);

    printf("Total  1000 notes: %d\n", onethousand); /1mark

     return 0;

}

 20. In computer networks or internet: 10marks

a) How do you define a Protocol?

Protocol

Sometimes referred to as an access method, a protocol is a standard used to define a method of exchanging data over a computer network.

Each protocol has its own method of how data is formatted when sent and what to do with it once received, how that data is compressed or how to check for errors in data.

b) Give the full form of each of the following acronyms:

 

 

             &nb sp;   strong                (i)            FTP : File Transfer protocol

 

                                 (ii)         TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol

                               (iii)         DNS: Domain Name Service/System

 

 c) Explain the functions of the following protocols that come with the IP:

 

                              (i)            HTTP

 

One of the most common and known protocols is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), which is a protocol used to transmit data over the world wide web(Internet).

HTTP is often called the protocol of the Internet. HTTP received this designation because most Internet traffic is based on HTTP. When a user requests a Web resource, it is requested using HTTP.

                            (ii)            SMTP

SMTP is a standard electronic-mail protocol that handles the sending of mail from one SMTP to another SMTP server. To accomplish the transport, the SMTP server has its own MX (mail exchanger) record in the DNS database that corresponds to the domain for which it is configured to receive mail.

                         (iii)            POP

 

 Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4) are two application-layer protocols used for electronic messaging across the Internet. POP3 is a protocol that involves both a server and a client. A POP3 server receives an e-mail message and holds it for the user. A POP3 client application periodically checks the mailbox on the server to download mail. POP3 does not allow a client to send mail, only to receive it. POP3 transfers e-mail messages over TCP port 110.

 

d) Describe how the following protocols work:

 

                              (i)            SMTP

 

SMTP is a standard electronic-mail protocol that handles the sending of mail from one SMTP to another SMTP server. To accomplish the transport, the SMTP server has its own MX (mail exchanger) record in the DNS database that corresponds to the domain for which it is configured to receive mail.

 

                              (ii)            MIME

 

MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an extension of the original Internet e-mail protocol that lets people use the protocol to exchange different kinds of data files on the Internet: audio, video, images, application programs, and other kinds, as well as the ASCII text handled in the original protocol, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

 

                            (iii)            IMAP

 

However, the selection that you make will have a major impact on your experience of sending, receiving and otherwise using email messages. While POP, or Post Office Protocol, used to be the most popular type of email protocol, IMAP - or Internet Message Access Protocol - is the go-to choice of most people these days. Learn more about what IMAP is, how it works, how it compares to POP and its main advantages below

 

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from your local server.

 

Section C

 

 21. With skills learnt in Event oriented programming, answer to the following questions:

 

a) What is Visual Basic?

 

  •   Visual Basic is a high level programming language evolved from the earlier DOS version called BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). /1mark

 

  • Visual basic is a programming language that all/subemows you to create your own software with the look of windows programs that you are familiar with.  /1mark

 

 a)      How is VB program made up?

 

There are three parts for creating VB application:

 

Design the user interface: When you plan the user interface, we draw a sketch of the screens that user will see when running our project.  /1mark

 

Plan the properties: Foreach object write down the properties that you plan to set or change during the design of the form. /1mark

 

Plan the Basic code:  this step is where you plan the procedures that will execute when our project runs. We will determine which events require action to be taken and then make a step by step plan for those actions. /1mark

 

 b)      What makes up a Visual application (project)?

 

A visual Application (Project) is made up of:

 

  • Forms: windows that you create for user interface /1mark
  • Controls: graphical features drawn on forms to allow user interaction(text boxes, labels, scrollbars, command button,….) /1mark
  • Properties: every characteristics of a form or control is specified by a property

 

e.g: names, captions, size, color, position an contrast. /1mark

 

  • Methods: built-in procedure that can be invoked to impart some action to a particular object. /1mark
  • Event procedures: code related to some object. /1mark
  • General procedures: code not related to object. Invoked by application /1mark
  • Modules: collection of general procedures, variable declaration and constants definitions used by application. /1mark

 

c)      Knowing that the formula to compute the volume of a cylinder is V=pi*(r^2)*h where V=volume; pi=22/7; r=radius and h=height. Write a required code to make a program that calculates the volume of a cylinder using the VB interface with the name of interface, labels, text boxes, one command button. So when you run the program, you should be able to see the interface with empty text boxes. If you enter a value each in the Radius box and the Height box, then click command button; the value of the Volume will be displayed in the volume box. The declaration step is not required.

 

First of all go to the properties windows and change the form caption to volume of cylinder. Then drag and insert three levels and change their captions to base radius, height and volume respectively. After that drag and insert three input text boxes, change their names to radius, height. At the end drag the button name it caption as OK. /1mark

 

Private sub Ok_Click()/0.5marks

 

R=val(radius.text) /0.5marks

 

H=val(hght.text) /0.5marks

 

Pi=22/7  /0.5marks

 

V=pi*(r^2)*h   /0.5marks

 

Volume.text=Str$(V) /0.5marks

 

End Sub

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